Fa’afafine: The Recognized Third Gender of Samoa

Fa’afafine: The Recognized Third Gender of Samoa

Somewhere in a group of islands in the South Pacific, a class of men who display effeminate behaviors and portray atypical masculine roles form an integral part of traditional culture and greater social structure. They are the fa’afafine of the Independent State of Samoa, American Samoa, and in several Samoan diasporas including New Zealand.

An etymological understanding of the causative prefix “fa’a” and the word “fafine” provides a direct English translation that means “in the manner of a woman.” Nonetheless, the terminology or label ascribed to these men is revealing of their recognized status as a third gender. Their acknowledged status in society comes from their established and important role in the traditional Samoan family systems.

Scholars who have studied the Samoan culture describe the fa’afafine as hard-working and dedicated members of the family. In their study, Nancy H. Bartlett and Paul L. Vasey mentioned that these individuals display an array of behaviors that range from extravagantly feminine to mundane masculine. Their sexual orientation resembles typical homosexuals as evident from their exclusive sexual relationships with men.

Difference with the Western Concept of Homosexuality

It is important to delineate the difference between the fa’afafine and the Western concept of homosexuals. The words “gay” or “homosexual” are inexistent in Samoa. Oppressive cultures in other parts of the world consider homosexuality as unnatural and people who have identified themselves as homosexuals are often perceived with contempt and discrimination.

The Samoan culture is different. The fa’afafine is a socially recognized third gender with an established identity and role that first emerged at least during the early 20th century. Researchers often replace the word homosexuality with the word androphilia to describe universal homosexual-like sexual and gender orientations and behaviors.

Some would assume that the fa’afafine are raised and nurtured for homosexual or androphilic behaviors because of the encouraging social environment. However, according to researchers Bartlett and Vasey, their study revealed that the fa’afafine share similarities with Samoan women when it comes to gender-based childhood behaviors and dispositions.

Both the fa’afafine and women are predisposed to engage in more female-typical behaviors and significantly fewer male-typical behaviors in childhood compared to men. A survey of the fa’afafine showed that some of them identified as girls when they were children. Performing typical male gender roles or portraying masculine-oriented behaviors upset them.

Other results from the study showed that Samoan families are less enthusiastic about influencing the sexual orientation and gender identity of their children. They recognize boys as fa’afafine the moment they display effeminate behaviors. However, although this third gender is recognized, some Catholic groups and traditional leaders refuse to accept them.

Another interesting conclusion drawn from the aforementioned study centers on the apparent universality of homosexual behaviors. Bartlett and Vasey mentioned that gender-atypical behavior in childhood and adult androphilia is not unique in Western societies. Both the fa’afafine children and homosexual children in the West share similar behaviors. It is possible that this relationship is a cross-culturally universal pattern of psychosexual development shared by most males who are predominantly androphilic.

Fa’afafine and the Relevant Theories of Homosexuality

The existence and recognition of the fa’afafine in Samoan society has an interesting implication that could explain the evolutionary role of homosexuality. It is important to underscore the fact that several studies revealed that the fa’afafine are more altruistically inclined toward their nieces and nephews than either Samoan women or heterosexual men.

Androphilic men in Samoa are eager to look after their nephews and nieces. They tutor them in arts and music or other school-related works. They also extend financial assistance for education and healthcare. Vasey and Doug P. VanderLaan have extensively observed and investigated the probable evolutionary underpinning of these altruistic tendencies.

A 2006 study with David S. Pocock also revealed that the fa’afafine have greater avuncular tendencies or uncle-like behavior than heterosexual men. Both Vasey and VanderLaan replicated and expanded the study further in 2010.

One of their findings showed that the fa’afafine exhibited significantly higher avuncular tendencies even when compared to a more closely matched control group that also lacks direct parental care responsibilities—or heterosexual men with no children.

Another result revealed that the fa’afafine not only are more altruistic than Samoan women or heterosexual men but also show more altruistic and avuncular behaviors toward their kin while displaying weaker tendencies toward other children.

Nevertheless, from an evolutionary perspective, Vasey and VanderLaan hypothesized that there might be genetic factors that result in the emergence and maintenance of homosexuality in a population and in this regard, the Samoan population. The existence of the fa’afafine creates an evolutionary advantage for a particular family or clan by helping the propagation of genes and promoting reproduction or procreation.

Furthermore, although the fa’afafine do not produce offspring, remember that their roles in their respective families revolve around looking after the younger members of their kin or their nephews and nieces. The combination of these altruistic and avuncular behaviors and familial responsibilities assists in the survival of younger members of the family. This promotes the survival of the entire genetic line of the family.

The existence of the fa’afafine has also been associated with the Fraternal Birth Order Hypothesis and another theory associated with maternal fecundity. The 2009 study of Vasey and VanderLaan confirmed the association of these two theories with the fa’afafine of Samoa.

Note that the Fraternal Birth Order Hypothesis suggests that a man who has more older brothers from the same mother has a higher probability of having a homosexual orientation. The maternal fecundity effect is associated with the evolutionary underpinning of homosexuality.

Several tests involving the maternal fecundity theory revealed that the mothers and maternal aunts of homosexual men have a reproductive advantage over the mothers and maternal aunts of heterosexual men. Both homosexual men and their mothers and maternal aunts carry genes that promote both female reproduction and male homosexuality.


  • Bartlett, N. H. and Vasey, P. L. 2006. “A Retrospective Study of Childhood Gender-Atypical Behavior in Samoan Fa’afafine.” Archives of Sexual Behavior. 35: 659-666. DOI: 1007/s10508-006-9055-1
  • VanderLaan, D. P. and Vasey, P. L. 2009. “Male Sexual Orientation in Independent Samoa: Evidence for Fraternal Birth Order and Maternal Fecundity Effects.” Archives of Sexual Behavior. 40(3): 495-503. DOI: 1007/s10508-009-9576-5
  • Vasey, P. L. and VanderLaan, D. P. 2010. “An Adaptive Cognitive Dissociation Between Willingness to Help Kin and Non-kin in Samoan Fa’afafine.” Psychological Science. 21(2): 292-297. DOI: 1177/0956797609359623
  • Vasey, P. L. and VanderLaan, D. P. 2008. “Avuncular Tendencies and the Evolution of Male Androphilia in Samoan Fa’afafine.” Archives of Sexual Behavior. 39(4): 821-830. DOI: 1007/s10508-008-9404-3